Open-source software – Wikipedia.Foundation Topics | Installing and Configuring Windows Server R2 | Pearson IT Certification
The latest version of macOS server only includes functionality related to user and group management, Xsanand mobile device management through profiles. Mac OS X Server was provided as the operating system zerver Xserve computers, rack mounted founndation computers designed by Apple. Also, it was optionally pre-installed on the Mac Mini and Mac Pro and was sold separately for use on any Macintosh computer meeting its minimum requirements. Mac OS X Server 1. It included a runtime layer called Blue Box for running legacy Mac OS-based applications within a separate window.
There was discussion of implementing a ‘transparent blue box’ which would intermix Mac OS applications with windows server 2012 foundation restrictions free written for Rhapsody’s Yellow Box environment, but this would not happen until Mac OS X ‘s Classic foundtaion.
It could not use FireWire devices. Mac OS X Server The The new Workgroup Manager interface improved configuration significantly. The release also saw major updates to NetBoot and NetInstall. The inclusion of Samba version 3 allows tight integration with Windows clients and servers.
MySQL v4. Like Lion, Mountain Lion had no separate server edition. Mountain Lion Server, like Lion Server, was provided with unlimited client licenses, and once purchased could be run on an windows server 2012 foundation restrictions free number of systems.
There is no separate server edition of Mavericks, just as there was no separate server edition of Mountain Lion. There assassins creed flag pc no separate server edition of Yosemite, just as there was no separate server /49726.txt of Mavericks.
Version 5. OS X Server 5. Profile Manager supports new restrictions, payloads, and commands. Future versions of macOS will not be supported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Server software for macOS. An OS X Ffoundation server. Macintosh Unix . See also: macOS version history. The Open Group. Retrieved December 4, Apple Inc. Retrieved April 21, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on June 9, нажмите чтобы перейти Retrieved November 25, July 25, Retrieved October 21, Apple Support. Retrieved May 10, Apple Newsroom. Retrieved November 21, Archived frse the original on August 13, June 28, Retrieved May 31, Mac OS X Windows server 2012 foundation restrictions free.
Archived from the original on September 18, Archived from the original on June 8, foundqtion Retrieved August 26, February 24, источник статьи Retrieved March 14, June 6, November 15, Retrieved October 7, June Retrieved July 31, Ars Technica.
Retrieved October 22, Archived from the original on June 28, ftee Retrieved June 26, Retrieved October 27, June 26, June 8, Archived from the original on March 11, Retrieved September 11, windows server 2012 foundation restrictions free Retrieved April 25, Wikibooks has more on the restriction of: MacOS Server. History Architecture Components Server Software. Server 1.
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Windows Server Microsoft embedded a number of cloud-related features to Windows Server , going so far as to dub it the “Cloud OS,” so organizations could run services more easily in public or private clouds. The company also made significant updates to the operating system’s storage infrastructure and Hyper-V virtualization. Windows Server is the sixth version of the Windows Server operating system by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It is the server version of Windows based on Windows 8 and succeeds Windows Server R2, which is derived from the Windows 7 codebase, released nearly three years earlier. Two pre-release versions, a . Windows Server R2, codenamed “Windows Server “, is the seventh version of the Windows Server operating system by Microsoft, as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was unveiled on June 3, at TechEd North America, and released on October 18 of the same year. It is the successor to the original Windows Server , and is the .
Windows Server: versions, editions, licensing | Serverspace.
Open-source software OSS is computer software that is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to use, study, change, and distribute the software and its source code to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration , meaning any capable user is able to participate online in development, making the number of possible contributors indefinite. The ability to examine the code facilitates public trust in the software.
Open-source software development can bring in diverse perspectives beyond those of a single company. Open source code can be used for studying and allows capable end users to adapt software to their personal needs in a similar way user scripts and custom style sheets allow for web sites, and eventually publish the modification as a fork for users with similar preferences, and directly submit possible improvements as pull requests.
In the early days of computing, programmers and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing. For example, Unix included the operating system source code for users. Eventually, the open-source notion moved to the wayside of commercialization of software in the years — However, academics still often developed software collaboratively.
The paper received significant attention in early , and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software. Netscape’s act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation ‘s free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry.
They concluded that FSF’s social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code.
The Open Source Initiative was founded in February to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles. While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves increasingly threatened by the concept of freely distributed software and universal access to an application’s source code.
Microsoft executive Jim Allchin publicly stated in that “open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can’t imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business.
IBM, Oracle, Google, and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today’s competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS. The free-software movement was launched in In , a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software OSS as an expression which is less ambiguous    and more comfortable for the corporate world.
With open-source software, generally, anyone is allowed to create modifications of it, port it to new operating systems and instruction set architectures , share it with others or, in some cases, market it.
Scholars Casson and Ryan have pointed out several policy-based reasons for adoption of open source — in particular, the heightened value proposition from open source when compared to most proprietary formats in the following categories:.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition. The most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License GPL , which “allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence”, thus also free.
The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, , in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape’s January announcement of a source code release for Navigator as Mozilla. Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet , since , started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foundation FSF , started in , intended the word “free” to mean freedom to distribute or “free as in free speech” and not freedom from cost or “free as in free beer”.
Since a great deal of free software already was and still is free of charge, such free software became associated with zero cost, which seemed anti-commercial.
With at least 20 years of evidence from case histories of closed software development versus open development already provided by the Internet developer community, the OSI presented the “open source” case to commercial businesses, like Netscape.
The OSI hoped that the use of the label “open source”, a term suggested by Christine Peterson   of the Foresight Institute at the strategy session, would eliminate ambiguity, particularly for individuals who perceive “free software” as anti-commercial. They sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source.
Perens attempted to register “open source” as a service mark for the OSI, but that attempt was impractical by trademark standards. Meanwhile, due to the presentation of Raymond’s paper to the upper management at Netscape—Raymond only discovered when he read the press release ,  and was called by Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale ‘s PA later in the day—Netscape released its Navigator source code as open source, with favorable results.
The Open Source Initiative ‘s OSI definition is recognized by several governments internationally  as the standard or de facto definition. The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines , written and adapted primarily by Perens. Under Perens’ definition, open source is a broad software license that makes source code available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent restrictions on the use and modification of the code.
It is an explicit “feature” of open source that it puts very few restrictions on the use or distribution by any organization or user, in order to enable the rapid evolution of the software.
Despite initially accepting it,  Richard Stallman of the FSF now flatly opposes the term “Open Source” being applied to what they refer to as “free software”.
Although he agrees that the two terms describe “almost the same category of software”, Stallman considers equating the terms incorrect and misleading. When an author contributes code to an open-source project e. Some open-source projects do not take contributed code under a license, but actually require joint assignment of the author’s copyright in order to accept code contributions into the project.
The proliferation of open-source licenses is a negative aspect of the open-source movement because it is often difficult to understand the legal implications of the differences between licenses. With more than , open-source projects available and more than unique licenses, the complexity of deciding how to manage open-source use within “closed-source” commercial enterprises has dramatically increased.
In view of this, open-source practitioners are starting to use classification schemes in which FOSS licenses are grouped typically based on the existence and obligations imposed by the copyleft provision; the strength of the copyleft provision.
As a result, if end-users violate the licensing conditions, their license disappears, meaning they are infringing copyright. Certification can help to build user confidence.
Certification could be applied to the simplest component, to a whole software system. This project aims to build a desktop interface that every end-user is able to understand and interact with, thus crossing the language and cultural barriers.
The project would improve developing nations’ access to information systems. Raymond suggests a model for developing OSS known as the bazaar model.
Raymond likens the development of software by traditional methodologies to building a cathedral, “carefully crafted by individual wizards or small bands of mages working in splendid isolation”. In the traditional model of development, which he called the cathedral model, development takes place in a centralized way. Roles are clearly defined. Roles include people dedicated to designing the architects , people responsible for managing the project, and people responsible for implementation.
Traditional software engineering follows the cathedral model. The bazaar model, however, is different. In this model, roles are not clearly defined. Gregorio Robles  suggests that software developed using the bazaar model should exhibit the following patterns:.
Data suggests, however, that OSS is not quite as democratic as the bazaar model suggests. The average number of authors involved in a project was 5. Open-source software is usually easier to obtain than proprietary software, often resulting in increased use. Additionally, the availability of an open-source implementation of a standard can increase adoption of that standard. Moreover, lower costs of marketing and logistical services are needed for OSS.
It is a good tool to promote a company’s image, including its commercial products. Open-source development offers the potential to quicken innovation and the creation of innovation and social value. In France for instance, a policy that incentivized government to favor free open-source software increased to nearly , OSS contributions per year, generating social value by increasing the quantity and quality of open-source software.
It is said to be more reliable since it typically has thousands of independent programmers testing and fixing bugs of the software. Open source is not dependent on the company or author that originally created it. Even if the company fails, the code continues to exist and be developed by its users.
Also, it uses open standards accessible to everyone; thus, it does not have the problem of incompatible formats that may exist in proprietary software. It is flexible because modular systems allow programmers to build custom interfaces, or add new abilities to it and it is innovative since open-source programs are the product of collaboration among a large number of different programmers.
The mix of divergent perspectives, corporate objectives, and personal goals speeds up innovation. Moreover, free software can be developed in accordance with purely technical requirements. It does not require thinking about commercial pressure that often degrades the quality of the software. Commercial pressures make traditional software developers pay more attention to customers’ requirements than to security requirements, since such features are somewhat invisible to the customer. It is sometimes said that the open-source development process may not be well defined and the stages in the development process, such as system testing and documentation may be ignored.
However this is only true for small mostly single programmer projects. Larger, successful projects do define and enforce at least some rules as they need them to make the teamwork possible. Consequently, only technical requirements may be satisfied and not the ones of the market. It depends on control mechanisms in order to create effective performance of autonomous agents who participate in virtual organizations.
In OSS development, tools are used to support the development of the product and the development process itself. Revision control systems such as Concurrent Versions System CVS and later Subversion SVN and Git are examples of tools, often themselves open source, help manage the source code files and the changes to those files for a software project. Open-source projects are often loosely organized with “little formalised process modelling or support”, but utilities such as issue trackers are often used to organize open-source software development.
Tools such as mailing lists and IRC provide means of coordination among developers. New organizations tend to have a more sophisticated governance model and their membership is often formed by legal entity members.
Open Source Software Institute is a membership-based, non-profit c 6 organization established in that promotes the development and implementation of open source software solutions within US Federal, state and local government agencies. OSSI’s efforts have focused on promoting adoption of open-source software programs and policies within Federal Government and Defense and Homeland Security communities.
Open Source for America is a group created to raise awareness in the United States Federal Government about the benefits of open-source software. Their stated goals are to encourage the government’s use of open source software, participation in open-source software projects, and incorporation of open-source community dynamics to increase government transparency. Companies whose business centers on the development of open-source software employ a variety of business models to solve the challenge of how to make money providing software that is by definition licensed free of charge.
Each of these business strategies rests on the premise that users of open-source technologies are willing to purchase additional software features under proprietary licenses, or purchase other services or elements of value that complement the open-source software that is core to the business. This additional value can be, but not limited to, enterprise-grade features and up-time guarantees often via a service-level agreement to satisfy business or compliance requirements, performance and efficiency gains by features not yet available in the open source version, legal protection e.
The debate over open source vs. The top four reasons as provided by Open Source Business Conference survey  individuals or organizations choose open-source software are:. Since innovative companies no longer rely heavily on software sales, proprietary software has become less of a necessity. Further, companies like Novell who traditionally sold software the old-fashioned way continually debate the benefits of switching to open-source availability, having already switched part of the product offering to open source code.
With this market shift, more critical systems are beginning to rely on open-source offerings,  allowing greater funding such as US Department of Homeland Security grants  to help “hunt for security bugs.
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Criticism of Microsoft has followed various aspects of its products and business practices. Issues with ease of use , robustness , and security of the company’s software are common targets for critics.
In the s, a number of malware mishaps targeted security flaws in Windows and other products. Microsoft was also accused of locking vendors and consumers in to their products, and of not following or complying with existing standards in its software. The company has been the subject of numerous lawsuits , brought by several governments and by other companies, for unlawful monopolistic practices. Commission case, and it received an million euro fine. On September 14, , Microsoft’s flagship store was shut down by protestors as part of a direct action organized by Close the Camps NYC.
From its inception, Microsoft defined itself as a platform company and understood the importance of attracting third-party programmers. It did so by providing development tools, training, access to proprietary APIs in early versions, and partner programs. Although the resulting ubiquity of Microsoft software allows a user to benefit from network effects , critics and even Microsoft itself decry what they consider to be an ” embrace, extend and extinguish ” strategy of adding proprietary features to open standards or their software implementations, thereby using its market dominance to gain unofficial ownership of standards “extended” in this way.
Microsoft software is also presented as a “safe” choice for IT managers purchasing software systems. The Windows API is so broad, so deep, and so functional that most independent software vendors would be crazy not to use it.
And it is so deeply embedded in the source code of many Windows apps that there is a huge switching cost to using a different operating system instead It is this switching cost that has given the customers the patience to stick with Windows through all our mistakes, our buggy drivers, our high TCO total cost of ownership , our lack of a sexy vision at times, and many other difficulties [ In short, without this exclusive franchise called the Windows API, we would have been dead a long time ago.
Concerns were raised that this requirement would hinder the use of alternate operating systems such as Linux. In a post discussing secure boot on the Building Windows 8 blog, Microsoft developer Tony Mangefeste indicated that vendors would provide means to customize secure boot, stating that “At the end of the day, the customer is in control of their PC.
Microsoft’s philosophy is to provide customers with the best experience first, and allow them to make decisions themselves. Gates’ letter provoked many responses, with some hobbyists objecting to the broad accusation, and others supporting the principle of compensation. The Halloween documents , internal Microsoft memos which were leaked to the open source community beginning in , indicate that some Microsoft employees perceive “open source” software — in particular, Linux — as a growing long-term threat to Microsoft’s position in the software industry.
Another concern of critics is that Microsoft may be using the distribution of shared source software to harvest names of developers who have been exposed to Microsoft code, as some believe that these developers could someday be the target of lawsuits if they were ever to participate in the development of competing products. This issue is addressed in published papers from several organizations including the American Bar Association and the Open Source Initiative. Starting in the s, Microsoft was accused of maintaining “hidden” or “secret” APIs: interfaces to its operating system software that it deliberately keeps undocumented to gain a competitive advantage in its application software products.
On October 10, , Microsoft joined the Open Invention Network community despite holding more than 60, patents. On July 6, , Microsoft announced that it was placing their ECMA and ECMA specifications under their Community Promise pledging that they would not assert their patents against anyone implementing, distributing, or using alternative implementations of.
NET stack not submitted to the ECMA for standardization has been the source of patent violation concerns for much of the life of the project. The concerns primarily relate to technologies developed by Microsoft on top of the. NET and Windows Forms see non-standardized namespaces , i. These technologies are today [ when?
In June the Ubuntu Technical Board stated that it saw “no reason to exclude Mono or applications based upon it from the archive, or from the default installation set. Fedora Project Leader Paul Frields has stated, “We do have some serious concerns about Mono and we’ll continue to look at it with our legal counsel to see what if any steps are needed on our part”, yet “We haven’t come to a legal conclusion that is pat enough for us to make the decision to take mono out”.
In November at an Ubuntu Developer Summit , developers voted to have the Mono-based Banshee media player removed from Ubuntu’s default installation beginning on Ubuntu Mono developer Joseph Michael Shields defended the performance of Banshee on ARM, and also the claims that Banshee was not well-maintained as being a “directed personal insult” to one of its major contributors.
Microsoft ignored unauthorized copying of its own software for their benefit on the long term. While talking about users in China who don’t pay for the software they use in , to an audience at the University of Washington, Bill Gates said “And as long as they’re going to steal it, we want them to steal ours.
They’ll get sort of addicted, and then we’ll somehow figure out how to collect sometime in the next decade. The practice allowed Microsoft to gain some dominance over the Chinese market and only then taking measures against unauthorized copies.
In , by means of the Windows update mechanism, a verification program called ” Windows Genuine Advantage ” WGA was downloaded and installed. This behavior angered users and generated complaints in China with a lawyer stating that “Microsoft uses its monopoly to bundle its updates with the validation programs and forces its users to verify the genuineness of their software”.
A common complaint  comes from those who want to purchase a computer that usually comes preinstalled with Windows without a copy of Windows pre-installed and without paying extra for the license either so that another operating system can be used or because a license was already acquired elsewhere, such as through the MSDN Academic Alliance program.
While it is possible to obtain a computer with no or free operating systems,  virtually all large computer vendors continue to bundle Microsoft Windows with the majority of the personal computers in their ranges.
The claimed increase in the price of a computer resulting from the inclusion of a Windows license has been called the “Windows tax” or “Microsoft tax” by opposing computer users. In , all major OEMs agreed to this restriction. Microsoft does not provide refunds for Windows licenses sold through an OEM, including licenses that come with the purchase of a computer or are pre-installed on a computer.
According to Microsoft’s End User License Agreement for Windows 7 the ability to receive a refund for the operating system is determined by the hardware manufacturer: . By using the software, you accept these terms. If you do not accept them, do not use the software. Instead, contact the manufacturer or installer to determine its return policy. You must comply with that policy, which might limit your rights or require you to return the entire system on which the software is installed.
Acer Inc. Instead, contact the manufacturer or installer to determine their return policy for a refund or credit. Based on the updated language, vendors refused to issue partial refunds for Windows licenses, requiring that the computer be returned altogether.
In some countries, this practice has been ruled a violation of consumer protection law. Microsoft’s market dominance and business practices have attracted widespread resentment, which is not necessarily restricted to the company’s competitors. In a publication, Dan Geer argued the prevalence of Microsoft products has resulted in a monoculture which is dangerously easy for viruses to exploit. Microsoft has been criticized for the use of permatemp employees employees employed for years as “temporary,” and therefore without medical benefits , use of forced retention tactics, where departing employees would be sued to prevent departure, as well as more traditional cost-saving measures, ranging from cutting medical benefits to not providing towels in company locker rooms.
Historically, Microsoft has also been accused of overworking employees, in many cases, leading to burnout within just a few years of joining the company. The company is often referred to as a “Velvet Sweatshop”, a term which originated in a Seattle Times article,  and later became used to describe the company by some of Microsoft’s own employees. For example, the kitchenettes have free beverages and many buildings include exercise rooms and showers.
However, the company has been accused of attempting to keep employees at the company for unreasonably long hours and working them too much. A US state lawsuit was brought against Microsoft in representing 8, current and former employees that had been classified as “temporary” and “freelance”, and became known as Vizcaino v.
The Final Settlement  came in The case was decided on the IRS-defined basis that such “permatemps” had their jobs defined by Microsoft, worked alongside regular employees doing the same work, and worked for long terms. A side effect of the “permatemp” lawsuit is that now contract employees are prevented from participating in team morale events and other activities that could be construed as making them “employees”. They are also limited to month contracts and must leave after that time for 6 months before returning under contract.
Microsoft is the largest American corporate user of H-1B guest worker visas and has joined other large technology companies like Google in recently lobbying for looser H-1B visa restrictions. Jesse Jackson believes Microsoft should hire more minorities and women. Jackson has urged other companies to diversify their workforce. He believes that Microsoft made some progress when it appointed two women to its board of directors in During the antitrust case United States v.
Microsoft , ATL sent a poll to 19 state attorneys general purporting to show that “the public believes state AGs should devote their energy to causes other than Microsoft”. In June , the AdTI published a report, quickly pulled under the argument that it was a draft version, which contained criticism of the copyleft model and the GNU General Public License.
A May press release for the report stated that it would contain arguments suggesting that governments could be threatened by hackers and terrorists who could study potential vulnerabilities due to source availability if it used open source software.
However, the draft contained no references to these topics. The advert featured a newborn baby being launched out of its mother—aging as it flies through the air, and crashing into a gravestone.
It contained the tagline “Life is short, play more. The comparison included the cost of hardware, and put Linux at a disadvantage by installing it on more expensive but poorer-performing hardware compared to that used for Windows.
Microsoft spokesperson Catherine Brooker expressed the belief that the article had been “heavily written” by IBM employees who supported the rival OpenDocument format, though she provided no specific evidence.
Internet entrepreneur and Wikimedia Foundation founder Jimmy Wales described Microsoft’s offer as unethical. In , it was found that a photo on the Polish version of Microsoft’s business productivity website—which depicted three people of various races during an office meeting—had been edited to replace the head of an African-American man with that of a Caucasian , whilst also failing to edit the person’s hand to match the different skin color.
In details on a partnership between Machinima. This is due to the company being tax resident in Bermuda as mentioned in the accounts for ‘Microsoft Round Island One’, a subsidiary that collects licence fees from the use of Microsoft software worldwide.
Dame Margaret Hodge , a Labour MP in the UK said, “It is unsurprising — yet still shocking — that massively wealthy global corporations openly, unashamedly and blatantly refuse to pay tax on the profits they make in the countries where they undertake business”. John C. Dvorak said that in the s, Microsoft classified journalists as “Okay”, “Sketchy”, or “Needs work” and targeted “Needs work” journalists in an attempt to have them terminated.
Dvorak said that he was denied information about Windows because he was on a blacklist. Microsoft along with Google, Yahoo , Cisco , AOL , Skype , and other companies has cooperated with the Chinese government in implementing a system of Internet censorship. On June 4, , the 32nd anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre , searches for the Tank Man image and videos were censored by Microsoft Bing search engine worldwide.
Hours after Microsoft acknowledged the issue, the search returned only pictures of tanks elsewhere in the world. Search engines that license results from Microsoft such as DuckDuckGo and Yahoo faced similar issues. Microsoft said the issue was “due to an accidental human error.
The director of Human Rights Watch , Kenneth Roth , said he found the idea it was an inadvertent error “hard to believe”. David Greene, Civil Liberties Director at Electronic Frontier Foundation , said that content moderation was impossible to do perfectly and “egregious mistakes are made all the time”, but he further elaborated that “At worst, this was purposeful suppression at the request of a powerful state.
Microsoft was the first company to participate in the PRISM surveillance program , according to leaked NSA documents obtained by The Guardian  and The Washington Post  in June , and acknowledged by government officials following the leak.
Microsoft has denied  participation in such a program. In a statement, Microsoft said that they “provide customer data only in response to legal processes.