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Views Downloads 32 File windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice 72MB. Digitized by Google Digitized by Google SE c: PREFACE TROUGH the Greek language in its claaaical period has been, ever since ancient times, a field of almost constant research and study, 80 that the grammars and treatises written on the subject, if merely catalogued, would fill up many bulky volumes, an ‘historical’ grammar, tracing in a connected manner the life of the Greek language from claaaical antiquity to the present time, has not been written nor even seriously attempted as yet I.

The reasons are not far to seek. First, the origin and prehistoric stages of Greek are matters of vague specu. Next, the ao-ca1led ‘poat. Then the poat-Christian or Byzantine and mediaeval ages, far from meeting with any sympathetic interest on the part of classical students, have on the download iso windows pt-br at all times been branded with unmerited reproach and acorn.

Finally, modern Greek has not even succeeded in assuming a clear and definite. It is true that considerable interest has of late been awakened in ‘poet. It is virtually an attempt to fix the original seat of the Aryan lndoGermanic race in Europe and particularly in Germany p. Aa a matter of fact, there is not a single paragraph in the book about the Greek language in ita historical period.

It is obvious that the task of such a work devolves upon native Greek scholars witness the labours of EASophocles, JlMa. I have ventured to undertake such an essay, and having devoted to it more than five whole years, now lay before my readers the fruits of my arduous and unremitting labours.

The plan and method of the work are simple. I have collected and critically sifted all information available, and eliminated, as far as possible, all theoretical speculations relating to the Indo-European and mythical stages of the language.

On a similar principle I deemed it unsafe to enlarge on the Greek dialects, seeing that not only their actual number and mutual connexion are still matters of speculation, but that in many cases they have not even left adequate relics to illustrate their individual character.

As a matter of fact, by the side of Attic they appear to have had but a temporary and local existence, and exerted no consequential iniluence on the subsequent history of the Greek language. These eliminations narrowed the sphere of my investigations principally to the Attic dialect. Not however to the Attic dialect of the fifth and fourth centuries B. But referring here to modem Greek or Neohellenic, I must distinctly explain that by this term I understand the popular speech which survives in the mouth of the Greek nation, not the literary or artificial style, windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice, as far as it deviates from popular speech, has been partly transmitted through the literature, partly revived or created by Neohellenic scribes and journalists, and as such, though indispensable for vi Digitized by Google PREFACE.

I have considered or rather laid under large contribution popular Neohellenic speech, first because it constitutes a lineal and unbroken continuation of c1assical Greek, preserving all the fundamental features of ancient grammar, in its wide sense, and thus throwing much light upon many problems and innumerable details of c1assical Greek; next because, unlike prehistoric or Indo-Germanic Greek, with its conjectural data, поддерживаю, win 10 pro 20h2 iso download – win 10 pro 20h2 iso download удалил Greek with windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice actual data forms a sure basis for scientific or critical research; finally, because this often misjudged language proves to be the oldest living tongue, and thus deserves far more consideration than any Romanic or Teutonic tongue, however old, can claim in matters of comparative philology.

My original plan was to adhere as much as possible to the methods and theories generally received in our leading grammam, adopting even the Erasmian pronunciation to which, when an undergraduate in German universities, I had become a sincere convertand merely to subjoin to each rule its postclassical and subsequent phases or vicissitudes. But I had not advanced far in my research when I began to light upon phenomena which would not fit in well with the received theories.

And as these anomalies steadily increased in number, myoid beliefs, especially that in the Erasmian pronunciation, grew weaker in proportion. For I now began to see clearly that many a theory, old as well as modern, enjoyed almost canonical deference not because of its intrinsic merits, but rather because of the absence of a better theory.

It is in this way, and not by a preconceived plan, that the range and system of the present work gradually grew in my hands ; and with my present experience, I am not sure whether it might not have been better still if I had gone even further in the direction of emancipation. Windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice though I cannot claim to have everywhere established my own views to abeolute certainty, I do not feel much surer of many a doctrine now generally accepted as an old established fact.

For after all the grammar of the Greek language has not been written. The ancients 1 The proportion and mutual relation of the two forma of diction is synoptically illustrated in my Modem Greek DiotiolW’1 London,John.

These brief compendia then soon rose to canonical eminence, and 80 began to be copied generation after generation down to modern times, when the Greeks, with the windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice of Constantinople, lost their national unity. Some learned fugitives among them then came over to western Europe and introduced the rudimentary Greek grammar inherited from their ancestors windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice laid the seeds of the ‘Westem’ schooL The first act of this school, still in its infancy, was to do away with the traditional pronunciation-which reflects perhaps the least changed part of the language-and then to declare Greek a dead tongue.

My deviation from the current system, however, must not imply that I have built my work upon the speculative principles adopted by recent philologists. For while these neogrammarians can duly claim the credit of having overthrown the time-honoured but fundamentally erroneous theory that language windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice built up on a philosophical system, and that every grammatical phenomenon reflects an operation of the mind, they seem to me to be committing an equally serious mistake in another direction: for philosophy they have virtually substituted Indo-Germanic speculation, and in their zeal to viii Digitized by Google PBEl’ACE.

I have considered Greek in its distinct individuality, and striven to the beat of my ability to search the causes of each phenomenon or anomaly rather within its own domain and history than embark in alien and often indemoDStrable specuIatioDL Aa already indicated, my work is based essentially upon classical Attic, and 80 conside1’8 in a concise manner all eI!

After the Introduction and the chapter on the Pronunciation which, I trust, wm prove acceptable to many an earnest and unprejudiced student, I take up every grammatical phenomenon and follow its gradual evolution down to the preseDt time. As a matter of course, where it has withstood the in1luences of all put times without notable change, my f;jask has been comparatively easy, since I had either to attest its unbroken continuity through all ages by proofs taken from the intennediate periods, or merely to state the fact-when there could be no reasonable doubt-that the phenomenon under consideration still obtains in modern Greek, meaning of course the popular language of today, in particular 80uthem speech as defined in the Introduction f.

In all other cases where the thread of continuity did not reach the present period, my task has been more dilicult and often very arduous; for I had to search through each succeeding period either for its recovery or for its substitute. It often happened also as e. In such cases I had to ascertain whether it was a real novelty or a relic ancieDt speech studiously excluded from the literarycompoaition.

As a matter of course, I do not presume to have said the last word on all or most of детальнее на этой странице points, seeing that, even in the case of modem Greek, I cannot be reasonably expected to master, in all its details, the entire vocabulary and grammar of every single Neohellenic dialect, and I shall not be surprised it’ future investigation should prove that many a phenomenon, designated by me as extinct or peculiar to a particular dialect, still survives in one or more localities of Greece нажмите для продолжения Turkey.

All I can say is that I have studied every detail, and that my constant aim has been to carry on my investigations in a spirit of absolute fairness and candour, without bias towards this or that form or stage of the language. I have therefore made no preferential distinction among classical, post-classi.

If I have enlarged more fully on the later periods, it is because these stages, being lees explored, presented many points which were partly dark, partly new, partly debatable, and had to be established. Speaking of modem Greek in particular, it will be remembered that besides its intrinsic value for the history of Greek, it possesses the merit of having been the very language spoken by nearly all the commentators and copiers through whom classical literature has reached us.

These’ Byzantine’ senDee excerptors, commentators, copiers, ete. I wished to do so, I should not have excluded from the sphere of my research the written style, but should, on the contrary, have selected this very form as the standard. I accepted the facts and reeuJ. In founding my work upon classical Attic, and windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice that phase of the language at a certain length, I may be charged with having embodied in the book much matter which is familiar to Greek scholars.

This method was, moreover, the only practicable in a work professing to give a synoptical and connected history of the language, for it thus brings out in a clearer relief the traita and relations of its various stages and vicissitudes.

Besides it will be found that in numerous cases c1aaaica1 Greek receives new light from its post-claasical and even modem phases. To enumerate here all the new features of the work, or seek to justify them as well as some novel terms 80 g. All these new pointa have been more conveniently explained in their proper pJaoes, and their nature and number can be easily traoed through the copious indexes which have been prepared with great pains, and will, it is hoped, be found very serviceable for all purposes.

The only point which requires some explanation here is the adoption of a few abbreviations indicated by the capital letters. For I have rather preferred to assign a precise date to a grammatical phenomenon with the risk of ooouionally erring in some detail, than to follow the usual broad periods and thus shelter myself behind such vague generalities as ‘classical,’ ‘post-classica1,’ ‘Byzantine,’ or the like, terms which surely do not convey a quite definite idea.

Whenever no precise date was obtainable from the general literature, from the inscriptions or papyri, in assigning to this or that period the first appearance, the spread, or the retreat of a phenomenon, I was guided by a combination of observations. Another point to which I desire to call attention is that I believe I have consulted, in windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice every portion and detail, the latest authorities, and duly indicated their share of contribution to a theory adopted or discussed.

But in a work covering such a wide space, and containing an immense number of details and references; a work which moreover embraces the living language of to-day, it may well happen that in some of my views I have been anticipated by others not expressly mentioned.

In such a case, I believe myself entitled to leniency, especially if the omission lies within the period of modem Greek, because, this being my nativ! To conclude, I am far from presuming to have adequately dealt with my subject.

There may be cases of inconsistency, errors of judgement, and errors of fact. At any rate, it represents the fruits of a long and arduous labour, a labour I have undertaken and performed throughout with earnest and unabated zeal in the interest of science and truth. As the MS has been prepared, almost entirely, in the Reading Room of the British Museum, I gladly avail myself of the occasion to return my acknowledgements to its officials of every grade, for their friendly and ever willing assistance in all matters of inquiry.

I further own my gratitude to several other personal friends, for their occasional help by way of suggestion or rectification, especially to Mr. William Wills, of the Inner Temple, for reading part of the proofs.

Above all I desire to tender my grateful thanks to Miss O. Sandwith, a former pupil of mine in Crete, and now a proficient Greek scholar, who in times of great pressure very kindly volunteered to copy more than half the MS, and gave me the benefit of many a valuable suggestion.

I finally acknowledge my great obligation to Mr. Horace Hart, the Controller of the Oxford University Press, whose ungrudging willingness to have the entire MS set in type enabled me, during the print, to improve the book in every respect. Transitional Period A. Neohellenic Period A. Script Alphabet. PronunciatIon 0 the Sonants I, B. Aapiratae and Windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice B.

General Phonopathy Cl. Introductory Remarks b. Amplification of Words c. Consonantal Phonopathy Consonantism A. Liquids and Nasals. And according as the postpositive vowel is or is not sounded, the diphthongs are called proper ,wptlU or spurious K 1TO.

Spurious diphthongs: q. Scaurus, 16, 10 HKeil, vii : ‘lJ”tiqui quoque Ormeorvm hanc sabam ai per tu i. FBlass Pron. ESltoberts f. OHoffmann ii. The ancient o TowW, or rather 2ftM. Xftllll, ,gTfpoP, au. TOO It. So too Prisoian n. It The pronuncia. UoM by the following narrative :I believe that it ill known to few in what circumstances EraemUllwae indnced to write on the correct pronunciation. It reads a8 follows 0-” I have heard K.

The dispute at present turns mainly on the aapiration ‘which is unknown to N; on the ‘quantity,’ of which N makes no account but pronounces all sona. Eraamua, however, having found out the trick practised upon himnever afterwards used that windows 10 1703 download iso itap atos medical malpractice of pronouncing, nor did he direct those of his friends, with whom he was more familiar, to follow it.

In proof of this ll. Butgerua used to show a eoheme. Simon and St. The whole subject bearing on the genesis and history of the Eraamian doctrine is ably and lucidly set forth by JGennadioa in the N. PI Aa drive windows iso 10 1709 download google matter of course, regard is had here to that Era.



(PDF) Anacreonte fragmentos | Macarena Cerviño –


Lo1m’8 Pap. SS, ll-IS, thrice. IJ:If’ B. C1W CIA ii. PatJNPwr Bull. KaAovNcnor for Calvisius Bull. TtttUp’or CIG FBlaas HermeD. IJa, Gr. FGKenyoD C1aas. TextS p. Berlin ,32 beside ‘Aprra r ib. Berlin ,3. Berhn , Cii,f”, OD a coin! Imhoof-Blumer Abhd!. Berlin Nniar Berl Aka. Col Kvpl! Ntr”lM Aaroupyla from A”,r. The mMt u. I-t- ItaIltC”. Compare Heqah. J[, PbiL XVI. See 26 f. This phenomenon has already been fully investigated in 28 ft’. Regarding the almost regular practice in Latin of transliterate ing ‘I by.

HelL p. OIl HCollitz. IS29t 2H. II ib. VUlt A. I” cA”. OplOf ib. The argument for the monophthongal pronunciation ef 01 in. J2; olotlllCono Xen. For the strikingly frequent interchange of 01 and v in G-B times see 29 and The phonetic interrelation of DC and , in tile yt B. Jvnpoc riAa, lB AawlIN w. W “”, This aaaociatiOB of termiDal I would be UDaCCOuntable for A, if we were to aaaume anothe rlndependent I before it, that is if the , of the preceding diphthong contained a distinct poatpoeitive i-sound.

Bl’jO”Ctur, Un,. Orrc for dlTf. So further M3U1 elL iv. Spinll for -‘r’ ib. Texts A or t1″eely dropping every interaonantio I 20″. ZtniP M -. A pnaral survey of the pronunciation ot the in t1Ia V-Vzta A. Here then we And ib. CoIDpare f’tuother since B. ThEckinger 8′. Llkewi8e such miaapelliDp 88 ItAIor and ‘.

IIoDd before the paJa. TpnnlallOv Gr. This is moreover conceded by Eraam. Da invariably as d and b respectively, while traditioniata sound them as buzzes or voiced tA and tI, except after a nasal, where J? See also f. For the former. The only reasonable objection that could be raised is that the spelling Jij fj.

Jrij ,. On the other hand, for the pronunciation of fJ as labiodental tI, a whole aeriez of evidence can be adduced. First, the common Pron. I For A oompan: ‘A”,.

It, 6 P3 Boo. Though there is no dispute aa to the nature of the BOund of the above consommta, it will be advantageous to consider them briefly here. It ia unanimou81, ‘ conceded FBl Pron. Sg that the ancient Greeks, like their deecendants now, pronounced , with the tip of the tongue. PL Crat. D ore For CEraamiana aaaume the BOund of. But this proves only that the grammarians refer to the actual occurrence in written composition Nor does the other Era. De comp. Associated with the letters proper are a number of complementarysymbols which serve to modulate or regulate the voice in expressing a word or sentence.

Leaving aside “I and w, also , 17 b , such readifag marks are generally absent from the Greek inscriptions and the earlier papyri, and though we can trace at all events some of them to the IV! Quantitylluka: – the p. The rough Ci. See ‘la if. Also iDitial p is now marked with the rough breathing 64 , while pp may be written either pp or more commoruy simply pp.

Their original form,.. A1kman, lliaa of Bankea , was.. Eucleidian inscriptions show a great irregularity regarding this aymbol For very frequently it ia abaent 1 , still oftener it is added, but even then not alwaya in the right place, according to our present notions; sometimes, too, it ia put before erJWy initial vowel as CIA i.

See 84″ App. See also ESRoberta f. Couvane17, m aD iD. Greek b80k to the ID. HDDarbi8hire 24 f. Like all other frpocnfllicu, thiS Iifrn was devised by the grammarians and placed, as a diacritic mark, above the initial 80nants of certain words which, judging from their effect in composition, were originally aspirated lId.. The Greek language, though it unqueationably indicated the accent at all Dea, BhoWII no marks for it either in the inscriptiODl or in the earlier papyri NevertheleBB, aa early aa A times the theorists had observea that not only every word is stresaed, but that every Byllable bears a relatively higher or lower.

When two conaecrllablea, thus accented. IIII,u,,’1 reapectively App. Hence the common laying that each, wcml bu onq one MCOIlt, meaninjr by it the dominant aacent. See App. J”Aav- and ‘YAau. The above historical sketch of the development of the accentual marks makea it BIllloiently clear that, for practical purpoeea, the ancient Greeks, like modem phoneticians, recognized two degrees of accent: the atreaaing rising? The absolute identity of the circum1lex.

The theory therefore that in.. Uo 85 r. L u raJ, 66 Digitized by Google [‘1’ LIt’” [1]. This practice, which dates from lI, la both historically and rationally wrong. This naturally applies with equal force to the aocentual mark. The four stope ,. It is atill sometimes used u a diBtinetive mark, u B,TI-‘ whatever. IiMa ancienity marked by a aemicol:!

Of the three accentual marks now usedSIb. The acute ‘ can stand over any long or short ‘ syllable among the last three. Just as unatresaed syllables, now unaccented but originally marked with the grave 76 f. Compare SohoL lid Dlon. Tj “””Wflt. IW -,dp. Stlpflia rI. Uol IIpt. The circum,1’le. For the origin and value of the circumflex lee ‘J6 fF. Proclitics areG. All forms of the article, both prepositive and postpositive ; also N Orov or rn f.

The oblique cases of the personal pronouns ; Co The prepositions ; d. These areG. The prepositions. The negation receives the acute when it closes a sentence,.. The term encliaiaia olancient date.

De pron. Enclitics areG. The oblique cases of the personal pronouns 9 7, b. The Present Indicative of clpl and “p.

Ti, TOt, m, ftp,.. In connecting an enclitic with a preceding word, it must be borne in mind that Greek accentuation admits of no longer termination than one of dactylic rhythm, that is, no more than two post-tonic syllables can be left without accent Accordingly an enclitic loses its accenta. After a perispomenon or an oxytone 81 b , also after a proclitic, the oxytone and proelitic then receiving the acute not the grave, 82 b f.

See The grammarians teach that when several enclitics succeed one another, each one takes an acute from the nen following, so that the lut remains without accent, aB:. It is also to be noted that an accumulation of enclitics, such as appears in the above example, does not actually occnr; this very example being a fiction of the grammarians who coined it fOl’the purpose Arc.

IupwfaeDhAftigkait, ISberappel. Tonoelitics are syntactically accented or rather retain their accent, and 80 are called ortIaotofle- a. When the 80nant which wss to receive the accent of the enc1itic is elided, ss: TaW’ imv for TaVru imv. A number of disyllabic prepositions are oecssionally put after their respective words. In studying the history of the Greek language, we find that ita gradual evolution has been determined b:r variou8 agencies chiefly internal cp.

Some of these agencies, however, are of such a fundamental and general character aB to require an explanation here at the outset. B18II i. S4lo [lJ Obazaz iD Bekk. AttGlogg is the very frequent paychologioal phenomenon by which an item sound, accent, form, word, meaning, construction, ete.

Thus wio, P ok: ImYx-‘ to.. I Cor. I, 8ol1X n Luke 1, NT , a”. Technically initial P is tI8fM. Bee Thus Fp”,. Par the almClllt replar appearanoe of. Before a conaonant, P-N uncultivated speech changea. I lour. BelL Stud. Spm,s i. In 8amothraoe the liquiclll A , aft dropped altoptber cp. Ai nvAAotIpcG. Between liquids and nasals, a consonant is sometimes phonopatbically developed epenthesis, to facilitate pronunciation.

Before gutturals,. Thus l. So still in N CIA ill. I lIaoo. Tohn 6, RAnt I Cor. Before labials, If cha. In N the combination ,. The results of the two preceding rulea are applicable to Nalao. Note finally that, in the case of. TOur TOIf , inatead of dropping their final 11′ or tT, or accommodating it to the following initial conaonant, popular N speech very frequently inserts a protective or revective -f f.

CGeorafllM Const. On the other hnnd, Fis found in archaic and dialectal Greek 3. Thus the 8I! Sometimes i was apparently blended with a dental into tT’tT or TT. The combination Pri. Preceded by 3 and sometimes by,, , i apPfUently became C App. AMtf lAM,. Initial F was apparently dropped. Iutenonantic j and Fwere apparently dropped. So too in P-N but Bee f. Even Biblical nouns Scripture names familiar to the masses, notwithstanding Christian piety, conform to this rule, inasmuch as a final consonant other than IT,.

Only in ctlltifXlted speech iB it retained. All the above remarks respecting the determination and qualification of gender are still substantially applicable to N. The only aigilal departure therefrom is that names of trees in -or, which in A were feminine, now very often appear as masculines cp. This change, however, goea, in many cases, back to P times:. N 4 IWISp4por. P-N” cp. GBatzidakia N 4 ‘IIMot. The disorimiDation of sender by means of the Mdi1lfl of the Dominative singular must be l8se”ed for the respective sectiona of the decleDlion Here suffice it to state broadly tbatM7.

Thia broad aDd general rule aaaumed. IJUggeetive buis wu alnady dorded by the ut declension which distinguished. O8oe staited, the prooeaa of this terminal dietinction received additional impetua in the fact that in the vd declension numerous feminines in Accordingly in N all mllllCulines end iD So far, then, the above proceaa has not materially deoted the gender, nohrithatanding the long history of the Greek laDggage.

The chanpa etleoted are, apart from oertain loceliame and dialectal peculiarities. They are the relNlt mainly of analogy and uaociation aIao diaaociation of meaDing. The article is substantially preserved in N 23S b.

The various cases of a noun are formed by adding certain eMHtg8 or terminations to a fixed part called the stem or theme , of which the closing or final BOund is called the chafV. The stem appears in its genuine and full form by dropping the ending of the genitive case. Accordingly the stem character of the 1st and 2nd declensions is always a sonant a, 0 , while that of the 3rd declension is mainly a consonant When a sonantic stem is succeeded by a terminal vowel, it undergoes a phonopathic change contraction , and 80 does not show its genuine character On the other hand, consonantal steIns generally show their true character.

In N the lilt and 3rd declensions have been, to a large extent, fused into a single declension, the sinlfUlar of which substantially corresponds to the sinplar of the anclent lilt declension, and the plural to the plural of the ancient 3rd declension Rnli, rlna, TlnCl.

Thus, whenever the terminal BOnant of the nominative singular is retained throughout, the accent also remains in its place cp. CII, Tit. Geuitive and dative endings, if ‘long’ and accented, have the cireumJlex. Nominative, vocative, and accusative endings, if accented, have always the acute. Efldi”ll’ 01 tM Firlll Ikt:lenriora. Generally speaking, in maaculines terminal “‘ is the sign of the nominative singular; in femininea, it is the sign of the genitive singular cp.

P-N Sif! Thus, if we look at the si”fIVlm’ of the above endings , we find that the preva. Accordingly the consonantal masculine vocative -Go the genitive feminine. This phenomenon signalized itself as early as A, but owing to the Atticistic and scholastic spirit of all P-B scribes , the assimilation of all terminal sonants appears full1 established only in M-N speech P-N Plural.

In the plural a more atriking and fundamental chanse has taken place. Such an. Accordina’ly -u met with general acceptance, and gradually supplanted -al. Vita Chrya. Leo Gram. But as already explained, this proceu of levelling became manifest as early as P times and ap’peara complete in B-JL popular speech see IF.

For the accuaative plural see Considering that the resultant common ending -er -ff is greatly due to the homophony of aa and f ripen X. Aa oUrl.. Aiaa-ir “, ‘,tTtT-OI. In declining a noun of the ut declension observe thatI. The vocative and accusative singular agree in accent and quantity. The ending. The ending “‘I remains unchanged throughout the singular. The ending -a, when preceded by a 80nant or p in which case the -a is called pure , remains unchanged throughout thEl singular cp.

ID popular lpe4! Ea, -la, -ala have become oxytone,.. Nevertheleea the paroxytone form is alao fairly oommon In the dialects mentioned in 11, eapecially in Ionian speech whioh III moreover in1luenoed by Italian -icI and -fa ,.. N femininee in That in popular N the whole plural otthe let decleDlion follows the plural ot the 3rd declension, has been already explained in Inflection of N Feminines 1st Declension.

Car -,w”. GJti-oS’ rroAt. GJti-a, A. The declension of masculines essentially agrees with that of feminines , the only deviation being thatI. The nom. The gen. A barytone eubstantiv81 in -ar pure IJMa, 7’oii Xoxa. The popularity ot tbia practice llince H is moreover expreesly attested by Berodian, who in the tn’l’ teaches ll.

Hi The form a. Z ‘oNrar, 1IGA. Aor, XtJIJpitt. Some stems ending in.. Qa and.. Qa to -ii, and.. All resulting contractions techDicallyand conventionally receive the circumflex.

V Epl’1l D. O’VICO” sa8. NevertheleBB historical orthography requires us to follow the ancient accentuation in forma common to. A and N, as: ;, z,. The 3nd Attic declenaion, if ever uaed in A parlance Gp. GAor, IInxpfor, etc. Dual Sing. Mark that: 1 all endings begin with a. The earlieat traces of lOch aaaimilation go back to A antiquity itself, and the start waa aPearently made by contracted nOUDa, notably.!

Compare Sept. ON, etc. IN, nijuN. AB to the Plural in P Greek, the two case-endings -ff and -as- of the nominative and accWJative masculine and feminine. For apart from the identity of these two cases in all neuters fvAa.

In I4f1tic stems the process of transition has been much simpler than in consonantal stems. In this manner, masculine.

In the! On this principle, however, they ought to write also I 7′. Aa early as H times, a confusion between the plural of the 3M and 2nd declensions arose, and the process has gradually resulted in remodelling many mostly polysyllabic and barytone masculinea after those of the 2Dd declension CP Rist.

Singular, after the 1st dec1euaion f. OD IHixa. Dental Stems “” 8, 6. The accusative singular ends in. AapNk Digitized by Google “”, c””.. Ir,r-6t 0]. Br,r-t I”cl cl htp4w cl aatpow cJ. BalJA’W-f’ A. Further examples: lu,J,l’ A’, If the character is 1′, it is dropped before the ending -fA. Daal N. Plural N. AGm, traXW. Substantives in Theae are all oxytone maaculine, and seem to have originally had cF for stem cbaracter.

Also aabstaDtivea having a vowel before fV are often especially in ear-IYA contracted in the genitive aad a. For the acc1J8ative sing1alar -iG, P writers and inacriptiODl often show a contracted form -ij, “. This form, the occurrence of which in common speech is reflected by the Tragedians and even Homer, has met ever SlDce with wider po:pularity, owing to the general tendency towards a uniform inflection ft’.

Aa a nomiDative endiDg, -M that ill “,. SI t being incompatible with N phonology which admits only a ample final -r f. Mark, however, 6 ‘Y’I”7it nU -yew;; Corn. B 10a. Substantives in -oOc and -aGe. Jo-tr V. Jour A. ThMe few noUDa have altogether cliaappeared from popular N with the uception of ” Feminines in 4 also « , Gen. AV”, etc. Ia, 8. KGI D. So further: ‘AO’rv. II58 a B. Kllhner-Bl i. In N re. Mp” reS spear’ , G. Mparor, etc. In N” , Nvr 4 ‘ship’ , A. Jloeria ,,1f ch eoulCll3la.

Sqp nS ‘dream ‘ , G. Bti1l nrri’riD r ill the form. A I’, D. Owl; PL. Koerla a64 dS ‘A. Air, aWeS,. DVoOr and Dl’ua:dr. Aol , “. In SohoL Az. X pci”. Xlpa Crete, etc. Certain adverbial terminations which denote relations of place, appear to act like ease-endings.

These a,re- -e. WaaRlI in what place? However, their retreat from actual speech goes back to G times, if we may judge by instances like: 8eft. Acta 22, 5. Cer, Cp, Greek adjectives have either three endings, one for each gender; or two endings, one for both masc.

For the P-N history of this rule see the following aectiODl as. PorphyriOll v. In Greek, comparison is expreesed either by means of endings or by periphrasis.

L By means of endings, and that: I. So still in N,tbough “nn-or is now retreating before ita periphraaia. Lees commonly by -fA”JI, t. This haa become extinct in N. This is still partially preserved in N. The absolute superiatWe which denotes not the highest, but a tJe7Y high degree , is expressed either as above by means of ‘-Ta1W, t.

Gf stem ,.. ITdnnoor p41Cpdr p. It will be remembered that popular IIp88CIh. W1pft “.. Some isolated forms, 88 : ‘”. Acta Xanth. The rarer endings -WJI,!. Beside ‘x’p6,. Of these adjectives.. Defective comparison. Some adjectives occur in the comparative and superlative, but not in the positive.

These are In P-B we further meet with the following forms: ‘- ‘ up’ am. Preaently verba beginning with j- ‘1-, fa-, ‘-, lI-, , etc. Verbs beginning with a sona.. Some verbs beginning with , CO, 0-, take tbe temporal augment and at the same time prefix to it the initial vowel together with the succeeding consonant.

This is called Attic reduplication by the ancient grammarians, obviously because in their time it we,s foreign to the living language cp. OIl cU. The P-N history of the augment and reduplication h.. The identity of augment and reduplication, or rather the absence of reduplication, in all verbs beginning with a sonant inevitably led to a olose connexion between the perfect and aeriat, two otherwise naturally associated tenses The same considerations apply to the numerous other cases of verba beginning with two consonanu.

It is true that an initial mute or aspirate admitted of reduplication under certain conditions -2 , but even in th limited caseI, common practice was frequently in1luenced by the preponderance of the other verbs, and dispensed with the reduplication cp. CTTal are cited.. Attic by EuatathioB; cp. G Hatzidakil The gradual pl”OO8llll of the phenomenon can be detected even in the elevated style of the writers of the time who, despite their Atticistio zeal, cannot help admitting into their compositions such forma..

With the disappearance of the consonantal reduplication. The latter telllle, then. So 5 m-. In the call8 of the perlect participle, since it did not of itself refer distinctly to the past, its reduplication even in the form of temporal augment appeared out of place and 80 was simply dropped. M,,’ 3. In Buch compound verbs the preposition may na.

AVcu “. I A few compound verbs augment and reduplicate both the verb and the preposition, as: a,-lxopGI ‘endure’ Imperl. Several verbs, though compounded with prepositions, are felt as simple and thus take the augment before the preposition cp.

Verbs compounded with prefixes other than prepositions, or derived from nouns of such a composition I ft’. From the preceding IOOtiODB about compound verba , it will be seen that as long as they were felt to be distinctly compound, that is as long as each component was felt as a distinct and separate word.

When finally auch compounds came to be felt as simple verba they were treated as such, both augment and reduplication 80 far as the latter still survived being prefixed to the preposition, or, in case the prepositIon began with 8ODIIoDt, altogether dropped XtUmar-Blaa, fL Then s. I Kacc. I, 44 flCfrP”‘J»Tr. UnaTO Ar,. IIaCHq”,; Mal. A number of verba were augmented even in.. This becomes more frequent in P-G, owing to the ignorance of the time, as: Sept. Mar1i 3. CGL 22S ii. Zeitachrirt i.

St, 9 C Abgari , 14 kcrilJrt. GSpata 90 A.! GSpata 90 A. AftllfJf ubi Inr,c. GHataidakia p. In order to form and inftect a tense, we must know its ,.

This consists in one or more letters affixed directly to the stem. The character -If- of the aorist pueive appears ‘lengthened’ to -Irtill the indicative and infinitive. In addition to the thematic aonant, the subjunctive annexes a mood fJOtOe1. All above remarks on the inhes, referring as they do to prehistoric antiquity, are naturally applicable to N alao, 10 far as the verbal forma airected atillBurvive.

The Greek verb has separate person endings for the voices, as well as for the primary and secondary tenses. The above person endings are regularly appended to the infixes if. W;o nAYOY But in three IOlitary CI. For P-N The subjunctive of the perfect and pluperfect active, in particular memo-passive, are formed mostly by way of circumlocution The 1lrst person aingalar of the active voice.. The aecond and third persons singular of the active voice,. If ad.

So S4. So 86, 9. SPlo 0 ‘-r,”,Te”l.. I, 4 I-rM”1’e NT Xatt. S, 4 ‘E. Aota ‘1’ho. A I-rIalT. M1IG1″ ubi. IT Katt. I, 44 1Jcracau. Job 5. PL 34, CIG GCuriiua Anecd. Hat”Pf4 C4a0l1 write C.. It la eertaI. Dce that the ‘optative’ should haft beaD piMt. The future passive has active endings The ending -8, is simply dropped in the present, as 11’«; but in the aorist passive after the tense character. Of the two alternative endings active and middle A contaminatol7 form! In considering the P-N’hiatory of the imperative, we must diatinguiah between its second and third person.

The endings -. SSterret1 i. AWestermann 10, In all other N dialects, however, the only endings known are -. Pontoa and Otranto, though iD. GKorosi i. The plural! AufijTf, xafijTl. The ending -l’CU is peculiar to the perfect active and. The ending WW 7I’G. But see App. Instead of -ftW, the. Owing to ita simple and indeclinable chartllCter, the intinitiv8 shows no morphological viciasitudes lince..

Thil confusion, however, point. In the media-passive voice save in the. M”as: 1I’IIWp. Vita Epiph. GNTA bit. GBpata 64 OI m”ll’ AI-r”. I, J]nt, etc. Yerbs in -Go, continued from p. ICAn, IC. The only exception is ,aQ which still preserve.

For other P chuge8 see Yerbs in -lw. The rule of contraction is that of , S. The conjugation table of verbs in -it” is given in p. Monosyllabic stems contract only in combinations where the resultant, under normal conditions, wonld be -G-, as : wAI. In P-B Greek the a. Great Louvre Pap. So alwa. The conjugation table ofverbs in -or.

The rule that contracted verbs lengthen their character or r to 7h and 0 to III before a consonant , sutfers the following modifications : , I. So too N verbs in. Some verbs mostly liquid and sonantic preserve the short vowel, but insert in the future perfect and ut aorilt passive a. These are commonly cp. N verb. This peculiarity; however, ill of ancient date, Sept. In T-N thia verb haa the form U- and preaervea -f- throagb. AfI a pao ItfItpov a ,.. So too iD N, excepting. M’ hear’ J. In dealing with the P history of contracted verbs.

IriJA’llla, T. On the other hand, the two contracted t. When critically sifted. This pr0ce88 is manifested here in two distinct but parallel forme, one in the resultant. In either case the question at iBaue was which of the competing resultant.

In the cue of 01 and ow, this was undoubtedly ow. The earliest traces of this Bimp1i1l. NT Katt. IS, a54p! Petri et l’auli Aarciaat lb.

Acta Tho. Acta Katt. To browse Academia. Holt Parker. Parker, Holt N. CQ N. His work has affinities with various other texts, especially the Pythagorean corpus, but is idiosyncratic in its acceptance of an 8-month child’s viability. David Kovacs. Hayden Pelliccia. Gianna Katsiampoura. Jeffrey Rusten. Sofia Torallas Tovar. Mika Kajava.

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